Conflicts of interest arise when issues outside research could affect the evaluation of the work in terms of neutrality or objectivity. This can happen at any stage of research, including experimentation, manuscript preparation and publication.

Potential conflicts of interest are obliged to be declared. Undeclared conflicts of interests may incur sanctions. If conflicts of interests are revealed at the later stage, then submissions may be rejected, published articles may need to be retracted or have a corrigendum published.

If there’s a clear declaration of potential conflicts of interest, then the outcome is formed regarding objective decisions about the work and its review process.

Possible fields of conflicts of interest: financial, affiliations, intellectual property, personal, ideologic and academic.

Authors: Disclosure and conflicts of interest
All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or their interpretation in the manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.

Editor in Chief and Associate Editor: Disclosure and conflicts of interest
Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in an Editor’s own research without the explicit written consent of the author(s). Also, if Editor’s have relationships or activities that raise potential conflicts related to work under consideration, then Editors should recuse themselves from editorial decisions. Same applies for other editorial staff members.

Peer reviewers: Disclosure and conflict of interest
Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the submitted manuscript. Reviewers must disclose any potential conflict of interest to the handling editor and recuse themselves from reviewing.

Research involving animals, their biological material or their data

Animals' well-being used for research, education, and testing must be respected by all means. Detailed information should be provided on the ethical treatment of animals in the process of manuscript submission(s). Arrive Guidelines 2.0 checklist should be used when submitting manuscripts if animal research was a part of the investigation.

Also, consult the IUCN red list index of threatened species and Convention on the Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.

Researchers from countries not having any legal animal requirements or guidelines should refer to these websites for guidance and help: The Basel Declaration, Association for the study of Animal Behaviour and International Association of Veterinary Editors’ Consensus Author Guidelines on Animal Ethics

Research involving humans, biological material or their data

When reporting a study that involved the participation of human(s), biological material or their data, authors are obliged to include a statement that clarifies that the study was approved by appropriate institutional and/or national research ethics committee and also acknowledge that the study was performed accordingly to the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.

Ethics of case studies

Ethics approval is required for Case reports. Authors should consult with their institution in order to make sure they are complied with the specific requirements of their institution and aim ethics approval where it is required. Authors should be aware to secure informed consent from the individual (or parent or guardian if the participant is a minor or incapable).

Cell lines

Authors must declare what cell lines were used describing the origin of the cell line, including when and from where it was obtained, whether the cell line has been authenticated and by which method. If cells were bought from a life science company the following information needs to be provided: name of the company, cell type, number of cell line, and batch of cells. A statement should be included that an institution or independent ethics committee approved the study and that informed consent was obtained from the donor or next of kin.

Research Resource Identifiers (RRID)

Research Resource Identifiers (RRID) are persistent unique identifiers (effectively similar to a DOI) for research resources. JVE International Ltd. motivates authors to adopt RRIDs when reporting the most important biological resources (antibodies, cell lines, model organisms and tools) in their work.

RRIDs are given at the Resource Identification Portal. Many research resources already have designated RRIDs. The portal is able to provide authors with links so that they can quickly register a new resource and obtain an RRID.

Registration of clinical trials

Clinical trials are defined as any research study that assigns human participants or groups to one or more health orientated interventions to analyze the effects on health results. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health interventions as “A health intervention is an act performed for, with or on behalf of a person or population whose purpose is to assess, improve, maintain, promote or modify health, functioning or health conditions” and a health-related result is generally speaking defined as a change in the health of a person or population as an outcome of an intervention.

In order to ensure reporting of patient-orientated trials, authors must register phase 2 to 4 clinical trials in publicly available resources. For instance www.clinicaltrials.gov or any of the main registries that are involved in the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform.

The provided trial registration number (TRN) and date of registration should be included as the last line of the manuscript abstract.

Research involving human embryos, stem cells and gametes

Manuscripts that involve experiments used of human embryos and gametes, human embryonic stem cells and related materials, and clinical applications of stem cells must provide confirmation that all experiments were done in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations.

The manuscript should have an ethics statement identifying the institutional and/or national research ethics committee (including the title of the ethics committee) approving the experiments and describing any relevant information. Authors should confirm that informed consent was obtained from all recipients and/or donors of cells or tissues. Conditions of donation of materials for research, such as human embryos or gametes should be clearly described. Copies of approval and consent documents could be asked by the Journal.

In deciding whether to publish papers describing modifications of the human germline, the Journal is guided by safety considerations, compliance with applicable regulations, as well as the status of the societal debate on the implications of such modifications for future generations. In case of concerns regarding a particular type of study the authors may seek the advice from the Editor of the Journal.

Sex and gender reporting

Authors should use the terms sex (biological attribute) and gender (shaped by social and cultural circumstances) respectfully in order to avoid confusion of both terms. Article titles and/or abstracts should clarify what sex(es) the study applies to. Authors should also provide information in the background, whether sex and/or gender differences may be expected; report how sex and/or gender were accounted for in the design of the study; provide disaggregated data by sex and/or gender, where appropriate; and discuss respective results. If a sex and/or gender analysis was not performed, the rationale should be given in the Discussion part.

Standards of reporting

JVE International Ltd. promotes complete and transparent reporting of biomedical and biological research and research based on biological applications. Authors are recommended to follow at least minimum reporting guidelines hosted by the EQUATOR Network when preparing their manuscript.

Exact requirements may vary depending on the journal;

Guidelines are available for a number of study designs, including:

Informed Consent

All individual rights should be followed. For example, in studies there’s a right to choose what happens with personal data collected, to what individuals have mentioned during a study or interview, as well as to any pictures that were taken. This is significantly important in terms of sensitive people (for instance patients, minors, refugees, etc.) or the use of pictures in vulnerable contexts. Authors will need to ensure written consent before being allowed to include such images.

Information such as birth date, names, identity numbers, biometrical characteristics and similar details of the participants that were studied should not be published unless the information is essential for scholarly purposes and the participant provided written consent for publishing. Under some circumstances consent is not needed to provide when information is anonymized.

Exceptions when consent is not needed to provide for such type of information:

  • X rays, laparoscopic images, brain scans, ultrasound images, pathology slides unless there is a concern about identification of information in which case, authors should obtain consent.
  • Reusing of images: If images are being copied from previous publications, the Publisher will take into consideration that publication obtained the relevant information to consent. Authors should provide the relevant attribution for copied images.
Consent and already available data and/or biologic material

No matter if material is collected from alive or dead patients, they (family or guardian if the decreased has not made a pre-mortem decision) must have provided priorly written consent. The full aspects of confidentialities as well as any wishes requirements from the deceased should be taken into account.

Privacy, confidentiality and data protection

When biological material is donated for or data is generated as part of a research project authors should take into account, as part of the informed consent process, that the participants are made aware what kind of (personal) data will be processed, how it will be used and for what aim. If data is acquired via biobank/biorepository, Authors should apply a broad consent which allows research participants to consent a broad range of uses of their samples and data which is regarded by research ethics committees as specific enough to be considered informed. However, Authors should always read the specific biorepository/biobank policies in order to make sure that this is the right case.

Consent to participate

For all the studies where human subjects are involved, freely-given, informed consent of participation in the research must be obtained from participants (or their parent or legal guardian in the case of children under 16) and a statement to this effect should be present in the manuscript.

If human transplantation studies are described, Authors must include a statement declaring that no tissues/organs were obtained from prisoners and must also name the institution(s)/clinc(s)/department(s) via which tissues/organs were obtained.

Consent to publish

The above should be declared and summed up in a statement and included in a section entitled "Declarations" before the reference list. Other declarations include Funding, Ethics approval, Conflicts of interest, Data and/or Code availability and Authors’ contribution statements.